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A Brief Timeline of the Danish Settlement of St. John from 1718 to 1734

David W. Knight Sr © 2013 All Rights Reserved

The following is a highly condensed contextual timeline of the first seventeen years of Danish-colonial settlement on St. John, from the island’s formal occupation in 1718, to the suppression of an island-wide African slave rebellion in 1734. St. John references in this timeline have mostly been sourced from letters of report sent by successive governors of the Danish West India & Guinea Company colony on St. Thomas to company officials in Copenhagen, Denmark. These documents are housed at the Danish National Archives (Rigsarkivet), and are a part of a record group referred to as “The West India and Guinea Company Archive, 1671-1754.” English translations of many of these reports have been provided by my friend and colleague Leif Calundann Larsen, whose publication The Danish Colonization of St. John 1718-1733 (The Virgin Islands Resource Management Cooperatve, St. Thomas, 1986) remains the most comprehensive and well-documented English-language resource for this important period in St. John history. Danish West African references have all been sourced from Georg Nørregård’s seminal work, Danish Settlement in West Africa 1658-1850 (translated by Sigurd Mammen [Boston University Press, Massachusetts, 1966]). All other references have been culled from a variety of broadly-accepted secondary sources.

 1718

St. John & the DWI

March 25 – Governor of the Danish West Indies Eric Bredal lands at Coral Bay on the eastern side of St. John and claims the island in the name of the Danish Crown. With him are five soldiers, twenty planters and sixteen slaves.

British officials in the Leeward Islands quickly lodge protest and demand that the Danes vacate St. John; Bredal flatly rejects their demands. Although tensions run high the British take no immediate action other than to restate their claim to St. John.

The West India & Guinea Company (WI&GC) begins to establish a plantation and build a fortress at Coral Bay. The fort is named Frederiksvaern.

August 30 – Governor Bredal reports that nearly thirty plantations have been taken up by Danish-sanctioned settlers on St. John.

Africa

The situation at the Danish slaving fort Christiansborg on the Guinea Coast is chaos.

There has been continual war between the Akim and the Akwamu, who have long been the Dane’s ally and primary source of slaves.

The fort is under staffed and under supplied; ships arrive many months apart and bring poor quality goods for trade. The Akwamu King, Aquando, demands constant tributes that the Danes can little afford.

Gradually the war between the Akwamu and Akim brings the gold trade to a standstill, however, the many prisoners of war being taken assures a constant inflow of new slaves to the fort.

Denmark

Denmark has become an absolute monarchy.

The country’s economic situation grows increasingly precarious as a prolonged period of war throughout the Baltic region erodes its resources.

Norway and Denmark cling to a loose, but strained affiliation.

Elsewhere

Sweden’s King, Charles XII is killed while attempting to invade Norway; Sweden has lost all of its territories except Finland.

England declares war on Spain.

The New Orleans colony is founded by the Mississippi Company

1719

St. John & the DWI

January 7 – Governor Bredal expresses concern of an English attack on St. John – there are only five soldiers on the island.

February 12 – Bredal reports that the Spanish have captured two ships at St. John: one belonging to Thomas Bordeaux; the other, to Johannes van Beverhoudt. Bredal states that the occupation of St. John has become a “burden” and that the island is badly in need of men.

May 28 – Bredal again expresses fear of an English attack.

Africa

Conditions at Christiansborg on the West Coast of Africa continue to deteriorate.

Elsewhere

France declares war on Spain.

1720

St. John & the DWI

April 4 – Bredal complains of severe lack of manpower. He states that if more slaves are not provided St. John will need to be abandoned; suggests sending the Company ship Crownprince directly to Guinea to bring back slaves for St. John.

May 29 – Bredal reports ongoing trouble in establishing the Danish presence on St. John.

The crew of a WI&GC ship anchored at St. Thomas is sent to Coral Bay to bolster defenses as there are reports that the Spanish are preparing an attack on St. John.

Africa

August 6 – Commandant of Christiansborg, Knud Rost dies. His successor, Peder Ostrup, finds it impossible to maintain order.

Denmark

The Treaty of Fredericksborg is signed between Denmark and Sweden.

Peace gradually comes to the Baltic region. Eighty years of almost uninterrupted war has left the Danish economy in shambles.

Russia emerges as an important Baltic power and Denmark retreats into its boundaries, only retaining a portion of Slesvig, where the Danes allow the German language to predominate.

Elsewhere

The failure of John Law’s Mississippi Company leads to French national bankruptcy.

The colony of New York begins trade with the West Indies — later reaches trade agreement with the Danish West Indies.

1721

St. John & the DWI

July 14 – Bredal reports there is not much unoccupied land left on St. John and that he has acquired a sugar mill and accessories for the Company plantation.

July 15 – Word reaches St. John that the Spanish have armed six vessels for an attack on the island.

Denmark

Frederik IV declares himself to be absolute monarch over the duchies.

Queen Louise dies. Frederik IV immediately marries his mistress, Anna Sophie Reventlow, and names her queen. Unabashed nepotism causes a split in the royal house.

1722

St. John & the DWI

January 22 – St. John is put into a state of defense as rumors continue of a Spanish attack.

April – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley arrives at St. Thomas with 201 newly-enslaved Africans.

May 11 – Spanish threat has blown over. Bredahl reports that an indigo works will be built on the Company plantation.

June 17 – The British once again restate their claim to St. John and demand that Bredal’s settlers vacate the island.

June 18 – Bredal reports that the sugar works is nearly completed on the Company plantation

July 15 – Bredal reports that there are now thirty-eight plantations on St. John and compiles a list of the owners: Eric Bredal, Cornelius Delicat, Joachim Delicat, Jacobus Delicat, Pieter Deurloo, Andreas Hissing, Jacobus van Stell, Wilhelm van Stell, Johannes Seis, Jan Vlack,  Isaac Groenwold, Andreas Torstenson, Adolph Pieter Maynfelt, Johannes Charles, Isaac Runnels, Abraham Runnels, Johannes Beverhoudt, Glaudi van Beverhoudt, Gerhard Moll, Lucas van Beverhoudt, Adrian van Beverhoudt, Francois Buk, Thomas Bordeaux, Isaac Constantin, Madam Parquereaux, Jacob Boufron, Adrian Charles, Frenk Gonsaloes, Johannes Uytendael, Betel Søfrensen, Jacob Magens, Johan Casper Cracowitz, Adrian Runnels, Paul Stage, Jan Loison, Lieutenant Ullerup, Jacques Thoma’s children, and Jochim Coop.

Africa

January – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley is the first Danish ship to arrive at Christiansborg since Ostrup replaced Rost as commandant in 1720. Upon arrival the crew finds the situation at the fort in a hopeless state of confusion. Ostrup is replaced as commandant by David Herrn — Ostrup later dies aboard the Haabet Galley before it reaches the West Indies.

February 11 – Haabet Galley leaves Guinea with a cargo of over 200 slaves.

August 9 – while on a visit to the Dutch territory of Accra Commandant Herrn is attacked, beaten, and robbed by natives. The Danish flag he carries is torn to shreds.

Elsewhere

Herrnhut (in eastern Saxony) is founded as a Moravian settlement by Count Zinzendorf.             

1723

St. John & the DWI

November 26 – Bredal reports that a storm has damaged some of the plantations on St. John and that the indigo works on the Company plantation has been completed.

Africa

January 22 – Commandant Herrn dies at Christiansborg. He is succeeded by Niles Jensen Ostrup.

October 30 – Commandant N. J. Ostrup dies at Christiansborg.

November 7 – WI&GC ship Christiansborg arrives from Copenhagen. Company assistant C. A. Syndermann is named acting commandant.

1724

St. John & the DWI

March 16 – Bredahl complains that more slaves are badly needed on St. John.

May 1 – Eric Bredahl is replaced as Danish West Indies governor by O. J. Thambsen

June – WI&GC ship Christiansborg arrives at St. Thomas with a cargo of 351 slaves.

September 14 – Acting Governor Frederick Moth suggests that the Company sell its Krum Bay plantation on St. Thomas to help man and supply the plantation at Coral Bay.

Moth reports that Frederiksvern needs eight gun carriages and that Militia-Captain De Buyk has been forced to give up plans to hunt down runaway slaves as there are not enough capable men on St. John.

September 18 – Governor Thambsen dies on St. Thomas. He is formally replaced by Frederick Moth, a former WI&GC ship captain and Head Merchant on St. Thomas.

December 16 – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley arrives on St. Thomas with 219 Africans. All are sold to plantations on St. Thomas or St. John.

Captain Andreas Hammer of the Haabet Galley is granted a plantation on St. John.

Africa

March – WI&GC ship Christiansborg sails from the Guinea coast with 412 slaves.

April 27 – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley arrives at Christiansborg with Henrik Suhm who replaces Syndermann as commandant.

August 16 – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley leaves the Guinea coast with 250 slaves.

Wars among the African tribes continue. The Akwamu’s raids against neighboring towns along the coast force many inhabitants to flee the area. Provisions grow scarce and general trade becomes slow.

King Aquando enters into an alliance with the Fanti and together they launch an attack against the Agona who live between the Akwamu and Fanti territories. The Fanti attack first, causing the Agona to flee towards Akwamu territory where they are taken prisoner and enslaved.

Denmark

November 21 – J. P. Gardelin receives a commission as Head Bookkeeper and Vice Commandant of St. John, and embarks for the Danish West Indies.

1725

St. John & the DWI

The Commandant of Frederiksvaern, Lieut. Peter Froling, is granted a plantation on Company land in Coral Bay.

April 25 – Governor Moth reports work underway on a sugar boiling house on Company plantation.

J. P. Gardelin returns to the Danish West Indies as head Bookkeeper and Vice Commandant of St. John (he had previously served as WI&GC Secretary on St. Thomas from 1711 to 1716).

July 6 – English once again demand that the Danes evacuate St. John.

November 22 – A severe drought is reported. Hardly ¼ of the inhabitants are able to plant a corn crop.

Late in the year the sugar boiling house on the Company plantation is completed. However, it still needs sugar kettles.

Africa

Summer – Aquando, the warrior king of the Akwamu, dies. Only his great rivals the Akim had not been brought down by him.

1726

St. John & the DWI

Interim Governor Capt. Frederick. Moth is granted a plantation on Company land in Coral Bay

Vice-Commandant Philip Gardelin is granted a plantation on Company land in Coral Bay

March 6 – Governor Moth reports that the Company plantation has only produced twenty-three hogsheads of sugar (over 100 were expected). He suggests sending all the slaves from the Company’s Krum Bay plantation on St. Thomas to St. John.

Worms have destroyed almost the entire cotton crop on St. Thomas and St. John

Soldiers are still badly needed on St. John

A Water Battery has been built on the eastern shoreline below Frederiksvaern.

Africa

September – WI&GC ship Christiansborg sails from the Guinea coast with a cargo of 281 slaves.

1727

St. John & the DWI

February – WI&GC ship Christiansborg arrives at St. Thomas with 207 slaves — 74 slaves had died during the passage from Africa.

May 5 – Governor Moth reports that twelve hogsheads of refined white sugar have been sent from the Company plantation at Coral Bay to Copenhagen.

May 14 – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley arrives on St. Thomas with 217 African slaves. Also on board the Haabet Galley is the former Commandant of the WI&GC fort on the Guinea coast, Henrik Suhm, who is to replaces Moth as Governor on St. Thomas.

May 24 – Vice-Commandant Gardelin reports that John Reimert Sodtmann has been appointed bailiff on St. John (he had previously been a WI&GC clerk). Also, Jean Chartier has been employed as sugar refiner on the Company plantation.

June 17 – Governor Suhm reports that he is helping Gardelin make a provisional tax list for St. John.

September 29/ 30 – A hurricane damages the crops on the Company plantation.

Africa

March – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley sails from the Guinea coast with a cargo of 238 slaves. On board is Henrik Suhm.

September – WI&GC ship Young Virgin sails from the Guinea coast with a cargo of 47 slaves.

March 4 – Suhm is replaced as commandant of Christiansborg by Frederick Pahl.

September 18 – Commandant F. Pahl dies. He is replaced by Andreas Willemsen

The power of the new Akwamu king, Ansa Kwoa, begins to crumble. An Akwamu prince, Amaga, stages independent raids and is seen to usurp the power of the King.

Elsewhere

The Quakers announce their opposition to slavery.

1728

St. John & the DWI

January – Slave ship Young Virgin arrives at St. Thomas with 32 African slaves.

April 13 – Governor Suhm reports that the Company’s sugar refinery on St. John is now ready to go into full operation.

May 14 – The first tax rolls are compiled for St. John and sent to Copenhagen. Suhm reports difficulties in compiling the tax list as there are many problems with land measurements and deeds. He states that St. John is now fully occupied. Ninety-eight plantations are accounted for.

September 22 – A severe hurricane strikes the Danish West Indies causing much damage. The Company bark is wrecked in Coral Bay.

St. Thomas bailiff L. Hendrichsen is granted a plantation on Company land in Coral Bay

December – Governor Suhn is granted a plantation on Company land in Coral Bay.

Africa

December 24 – Andreas Willemsen is relieved as commandant of Christiansborg by Andreas Pedersen Waeroe.

Denmark

October – A fire destroys 60% of Copenhagen. Reconstruction strains the Royal purse.

1729

St. John & the DWI

January 12 – Governor Suhm reports that due to last year’s hurricane no refined sugar will be sent from the Company plantation, and that the cotton crop has once again been eaten by worms.

July – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley arrives at St. Thomas with 126 African slaves.

August 11 – Suhm reports that the Spanish have attacked St. John and carried away thirty slaves.

August 15 –  WIGC ship Salvator Mundi is wrecked between Anagada and Virgin Gorda with a full cargo from St. Thomas bound for Copenhagen.

November 2 – Suhm orders that any newly arrived slaves that have not been auctioned away on St. Thomas are to be sent to St. John. He suggests closing the Company plantation at Coral Bay as it has not proved profitable. Claims the soil is bad due to too much saltpeter.

Africa

March – There is a general uprising by the “hill people” against the Akwamu. The Akwamu attack the Accra, whom they feel have coerced the hill people into revolt. At first the Accra are defeated, but they remain bitter and soon resume the fight. The general unrest cuts off the flow of supplies and provisions to the Christiansborg.

May – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley sails from the Guinea coast with a cargo of 120 slaves.

September 28 – the WI&GC ship Prince Frederich arrives at Christiansborg with much needed supplies. The fort has been virtually under siege for six months.

December 28 – the Haabet Galley returns to Christiansborg directly from the Danish West Indies bringing gun powder and ball. Commandant Waeroe recruits sailors from the ship to help defend the fort. He appeals to Prince Amaga and King Ansa Kwoa for assistance.

Elsewhere

The Treaty of Seville ends war between Spain, France, and England.

1730

St. John & the DWI

April 22 – Gardelin reports that there is much smuggling of cotton from St. John to the English islands. He suggests that a fast coast guard boat should be fitted out to patrol the waters around both St. Thomas and St. John.

The decision is made that the sugar refinery on the Company plantation will be closed.

C. F. Bodger employed as doctor on the Company plantation on St. John.

September 17 – The WI&GC slave ship Christiansborg is wrecked on a return voyage from St. Thomas.

Africa

January 8 – the Accra begin to fire directly on the Christiansborg fortress. For more than two weeks there is a continual exchange of gunfire between the Africans and the Danes.

January 23 – In the morning, five Akwamu leaders and their forces arrive at the fort carrying a Danish flag. The Akwamu engage the enemy and drive the Accra away from Christiansborg. For many days the struggle continues.

February 14 – The Akwamu King, Ansa Kwoa, arrives at the battle scene with a great force of warriors and by March 22 the Accra are finally defeated. Meanwhile, while the Akwamu have been busy fighting the Accra, other Kings have made advances on Akwamu territory. This leads to a general state of war among the Akwamu and the Ashanti, Wasa, Fanti, Agona, Assini and Akim. A large area of the country around Christiansborg becomes a no-mans’-land.

September 17 – News reaches Christiansborg that the Dane’s long-time alley, the Akwamu, have been soundly defeated by the Akim.

The WI&GC ship Haabet Galley, which has remained off Christiansborg for nearly a year, is still there to aid in the defense of the fort or to evacuate the Danes if it becomes necessary.

After a time, the Akim make it known to the Danes that they are willing to carry on trade for the same tributes the Danes had previously paid to the Akwamu.

December 12 – the Haabet Galley finally sails from the Guinea coast with a cargo of slaves acquired from the Akim – many, if not all, are Akwamu prisoners of war.

Denmark

King Frederik IV dies at age 59.

The 31-year-old son of former Queen Louise, Christian VI, ascends to power.

Christian VI is a shy and physically weak individual who is seen as unapproachable. He has been schooled in German and speaks no Danish. The King is greatly influenced by his German wife, Queen Sophie Magdalene.

 1731

St. John & the DWI

February – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley arrives at St. Thomas with fifty-five African slaves – many, if not all, are Akwamu prisoners of war.

March 3 – The citizens of St. John are called to Frederiksvaern to give the oath of allegiance to their new king, Christian VI.

April 23 – Governor Suhm reports that due to the drought the island of St. John is unlikely to produce more than 150 hogsheads of sugar. He advises the Company to consider selling the Coral Bay plantation or planting it with cotton.

April 26 – Suhm reports that the severe drought has now done damage to most of the plantations on St. John, and that a “hard working Englishman,” Denis Silvan, has been employed as an overseer on the Company plantation in Coral Bay.

Africa

March 28 – WI&GC ship Countess of Laurweg arrives on the Guinea coast.

1732

St. John & the DWI

March 19 – WI&GC ship Haabet Galley is in Hurricane Hole for caulking.

June – WI&GC ship Countess of Laurweg arrives at St. Thomas with 115 African slaves.

June – Governor Suhm purchases 25 newly-arrived slaves from the Countess of Laurweg for his Coral Bay plantation: P. Durloo buys 3; F. Moth, 2; R. Soetmann, 15; G. van Stell, 1.

Africa

April 1 – After more than a year and much difficulty in securing a cargo, the WI&GC ship Countess of Laurweg leaves the Guinea coast with 116 slaves – the majority are Akwamu.

1733

St. John & the DWI

February 23 – Former Vice-Commandant Philip Gardelin replaces H. Suhm as governor.

March 3 – According to an inventory of the Company plantation signed by R. Soetmann, there are 110 slaves on the Coral Bay plantation: 44 men, 42 women, 15 boys and 9 girls. Of them, 4 are listed as runaways (3 men & 1 woman).

April 16 – Governor Gardelin reports that there has been severe drought. The Company plantation is failing as its soil cannot resist the dry conditions. He also notes that Soetmann, who is deeply in debt to the Company, will be receiving 1000 rigsdalers from Gardelin’s late wife’s probate (Soetmann is married to the daughter of Gardelin’s deceased wife by a previous marriage). Suggests Soetmann should be allowed to invest the money in his plantation so he will be able to live and pay his debts in the future.

May, 11 – WI&GC ship Laarbourg Galley arrives in St. Thomas with 242 African slaves – 45 are sold to St. John planters.

June 15 – A treaty is signed for the purchase of St. Croix from the French. Frederik Moth is appointed as the new governor and takes up residence on St. Croix.

June 18 – Gardelin reports that a severe drought has now lasted for 5 months. Sugar cane crops have been left in the fields as none is suitable for harvest. He feels the Coral Bay plantation has become a liability to the Company and will now be difficult to sell – suggests selling it off in plots of 1000 ft. He adds that Fort Frederiksvaern is in dire need of maintenance.

July – A destructive hurricane strikes St. John.

September 5 – Gardelin issues a harsh slave code in an effort to maintain control.

Late in October – All of the slaves on the Suhm plantation, as well as many others from surrounding properties have gone “maron” (run away).

Monday, November 23, approx. 4 am – Twelve to fourteen salves from the Company plantation seize Frederiksvaern at Coral Bay.  Six Danish soldiers are killed.  Only one escapes.  A cannon is fired from the fort by the rebels to signal the beginning of a general uprising. A group of about eighty slaves proceed to kill any whites they can find throughout the island.

About 2 pm John Gabriel, the surviving soldier from Frederiksvaern, reaches St. Thomas bringing the first news of the rebellion.

St. John planters, overseers, and loyal slaves gather at the Durloo plantation. The plantation is attacked at approximately 3 pm. A siege lasts through the night into the next day.

November 24, early morning – The rebels resume their attack on the Durloo plantation. They manage to burn a warehouse and cut off the colonists’ water supply.

William Barents arrives on St. John with supplies and a detachment of about seventeen men to relieve the besieged planters.

Thursday, November 26 – Thomas Magens and a force of twenty-five men retake Frederiksvaern in Coral Bay. Afterwards, they come across a rebel encampment on the Suhm plantation. A group of rebel slaves flee into the bush in the area of Base Hill – eight to ten are captured and sent to St. Thomas.

November 29 – Governor Gardelin appeals to the British on Tortola for assistance.

December 4 – Word arrives from St. John that the rebels have assembled on the Kroyer plantation at Brown Bay. Peter Pannet reports that thirty-two rebels have been executed by this date; others were being tried.

By late December the rebels have broken off into small groups and are scattered throughout the island.

Africa

Early in the year WI&GC ship Laarbourg Galley arrives at Christiansborg. In the month that she is there only fifty-two slaves are taken on at the fort. The ship later leaves the Guinea coast with a cargo of 443 Africans, 199 of whom die before reaching the Danish West Indies.

Elsewhere

War of Polish succession begins: France & Spain vs Austria & Russia.

 1734

St. John & the DWI

January 5 – Governor Gardelin informs the Company directors that enough slaves had been killed on St. John as to present the danger of plague due to rotting bodies.

1st. week of February – Captain Tallard of a visiting man-of-war in Tortola, sends sixty men to St. John to join in the chase.  They are ambushed at night and four soldiers are wounded.  The captain then withdraws his men.

February 17 – St. John planters again appeal to the English for assistance

Sunday, March 7 – British Capt. John Maddox arrives from St. Kitts with a force of fifty volunteers. A list compiled at this time indicates that there are 140 slaves on St. John suspected of being involved in the rebellion.

March 18 – Maddox engages the rebels and three of his men (including two of his sons) are killed. Five others are wounded.

March 19 – Disheartened, Maddox and his men depart St. John.

March 21 – Governor Gardelin writes to Mons. De Champigny, Governor-General of the French Windward Islands requesting assistance.

March 23 – Lieutenant-Governor John Horn sails to Martinique in a French ship to personally deliver Gardelin’s message to the French governor.

April 5 – Horn arrives in Martinique

April 12 – Champigny sends orders to Capt. Longueville instructing him to proceed to the Danish islands with 200 men in two ships to assist the Danes.

April 14 – Longueville departs St. Pierre, Martinique.

April 19 – Approximately forty rebels once again attack the Durloo plantation.

April 24 – Longueville’s ships sail into Coral Bay after a one day stopover at St. Thomas. With them is a Danish force of about thirty men under the leadership of Lieut. Froling.

April 24-25 – A constant downpour prevents any action.

April 28 – The search begins as Longueville sends out four detachments. The first encounter takes place in a ravine, at which time one rebel is killed. A rebel camp consisting of twenty-six huts is subsequently located and burned.

April 29 through May 2 – Four days of fruitless search.

May 3 – Longueville returns to camp. The French are visited by a man from St. Thomas bound for Tortola. He reports having seen smoke rising from a point (perhaps Ram’s Head).

May 4, early Amorning – Longueville sends out two detachments of forty-five men to the place where smoke had been seen. Longueville’s men are observed as they approach and the rebels flee after setting fire to their camp. One dead rebel is found at the camp and another has recently hung himself.

About May 8 – A young slave, January, who has been captured, leads Longueville’s men to a place where eleven of the rebels have killed themselves not far from Ram’s Head.

Sunday, May 16 – Longueville informs Gardelin of the capture of eight rebels: six men and two women.  A judge is sent from St. Thomas to conduct a trial. Three of the men are burned at the stake on St. John.

May 17 – The remaining five captives are sent to St. Thomas where they are subsequently publicly executed (see: May 27).

May 19 – One rebel man and a rebel woman are killed by the Free Negroes Corps on St. John.

May 23 – Twenty-five dead rebels (including six women) are found by a detachment of the Free Negro Corps on Gabriel van Still’s point near Brown Bay. It is judged that they had been dead for eight to ten days.

May 24 – Longueville sends out two detachments to look for any surviving rebels; none are found.

May 26 – Longueville departs St. John for St. Thomas.

May 27 – Longueville’s ships arrive in St. Thomas. The French remain there for five days being entertained and provisioned. During this time the five rebels captured on May 17 are publicly put to death: one is burned to death slowly; one is sawed in half; and, one is impaled. The two women have their hands and heads cut off — all five are first tortured with hot pincers.

June 1 – The French set sail for Martinique.

August 25 – The last fifteen rebel slaves are lured into giving themselves up at the Adrian plantation. Prince, their leader, is immediately beheaded, while the remaining fourteen are taken prisoner and sent to St. Thomas. Of them, four die in prison, four are condemned to be worked to death on the fortification on St. Croix, and six are executed by various means.

Africa

February 24 – WI&GC ship Countess of Laurweg sails from the Guinea coast with a cargo of 224 slaves — only seventy-four are boarded at Christiansborg.

Denmark

February – WI&GC directors and chief stock holders meet to debate whether to continue the slave trade. A majority vote to cease the company’s participation in the trade, yet the trade continues.

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3 thoughts on “A Brief Timeline of the Danish Settlement of St. John from 1718 to 1734

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